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The Crawford s Auto Repair Guide to Beginner s Auto Maintenance & Repair This book is available in PDF for free, and it can be reproduced, shared and sold . Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics. Instructional Program. Block 2. Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Vocational Education. Curriculum Development Center. Automotive Mechanics Series. BY WILLIAM H. CROUSE. Automotive Engines. Automotive Fuel, Lubricating, and Cooling Systems. Automotive Chassis and.
An entire row at once c. One at a time, starting at the bottom of the row d. One at a time, starting at the top of the row Incorrect answer, please choose another answer. You are replacing a fuel tank. You've drained and stored all the gas in the vehicle. What is the next step? Take the straps off the tank and drop it. Disconnect the fuel lines.
Drop the rear suspension. A vehicle comes into your shop with a transmission problem.
Check the fluid level b. Check for leaks c. Look at the filter d. Disassemble the transmission and check the gears. Incorrect answer, please choose another answer. Problems with spark plug wires are almost always caused by cracks in the insulation. True Incorrect answer, please choose another answer. You are completing a radiator flush.
You have drained the old coolant and added the flush solution. Turn the vehicle on and let it run until it reaches its normal operating temperature. Turn the heater on and let it run at the highest setting for 10 minutes.
Drain the solution and add fresh radiator coolant. An engine is misfiring. Which of the following is NOT a likely cause? The ignition timing may be set wrong.
The cooling system may be malfunctioning. Research Questions As a result of the problem stated above the following research questions were formulated to guide the study: 1. What are the causes of youth unemployment? What are the positive and negative effect of youth unemployment on individual and the society at large? What are the possible means of alleviating the rate of unemployment among the youth?
Hypotheses The following null hypotheses which were tested at 05 level of significance, guided the study. HO1: There is no statistical significance difference between the mean responses of Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers on the causes of youth unemployment. HO2: There is no statistical significance difference between the mean responses of Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers on the positive and negative effect of youth unemployment on individual and the society at large.
The Concept of youth unemployment and its main causes Youths occupy a prominent place in any society. Apart from being the leaders of tomorrow, they out-number the middle-aged and the aged Onyekpe, The Federal Government of Nigeria asserts that the youth are the foundation of a society; their energies, inventiveness, character and orientation define the pattern of development and security of a nation.
Through their creative talents and labour power, a nation makes giant strides. The youth are a particular segment of the national population that is sensitive, energetic, and active and the most productive phase of life as citizens.
The Federal Government of Nigeria defines youth as people aged between 18 and According to the National Bureau of Statistics , young people aged between 15 and 24 years account for Therefore, those in age bracket of 15 and 44 years account for 94 percent of the total unemployed persons in Nigeria Osibanjo, Nigeria has continued to experience high rate of population growth.
This increasing population growth has produced an overwhelming increase in the youth population thereby resulting in an increase in the size of the working age population. In Nigeria, youth migrate to the cities more than other migrants and in the cities, job opportunities are very limited.
Thus, the rate of urbanization of the youth has continued to create unemployment. Lack of employable skills due to inappropriate school 6 curricula is another factor contributing to the rising youth unemployment. Analysts have argued that in Nigeria generally, many graduates in Nigeria lack entrepreneurial skills to facilitate self- employment Oladele, Akeke and Oladunjoye, Various forms of unemployment have been identified in literature.
Jingan has identified the following: structural unemployment, cyclical unemployment, frictional unemployment, seasonal unemployment and disguised unemployment. Structural unemployment arises as a result of changes in the structure of consumer demand and in technology. This type of unemployment is caused by mismatch or imbalance between the skills acquired by labour and the kinds of workers needed by the employer. Technological developments necessitate new skills thereby leaving those with outdated skills without a job.
Seasonal unemployment is caused by seasonal variations which make some labour inactive at least for a short period of time. This type of unemployment is common with people who engaged in agricultural activities, building and construction. Disguised unemployment is also referred to as under-employment. In Nigeria, a much more serious and widespread unemployment is the disguised type where people especially graduates engage in under-paid and menial jobs that the income is not sufficient to keep them above the poverty level.
For example, a graduate in medicine who, for want of job takes appointment as a cleaner in an office is said to be suffering from disguised unemployment. Cyclical unemployment: this is caused by deficiency in aggregate effective demand in the economy. Cyclical unemployment results from a general inadequate demand for labour. When the business cycle turns downward, demand for goods and services drops; consequently, workers 7 are laid off.
This type of unemployment is called Keynesian unemployment or demand deficiency unemployment.
In response to the alarming unemployment situation, Nigerian governments at various times have made attempts to solve the nagging unemployment problem by setting up various solution agencies.
Youth unemployment poses a risk to the Nigerian society. Youth unemployment has national and global impacts, notably among which are increased violence, crime, drug abuse and political instability. Furthermore, the negative consequences include poverty, psychological problems of frustration, depression, hostility, abduction, murder, armed robbery, and all manner of criminal behaviours causing general insecurity of life and property Adsiteo, ; Egbuna, ; Alanana, ; Okonkwo, Role of career guidance in reducing youth employment The term career guidance is generally replacing the concept vocational guidance.
Vocational guidance is focused upon the choice of occupation and is distinguished from educational guidance, which focuses upon choice of courses of study. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, defines career guidance as services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers.
This definition includes making information about the labour market and about educational and employment opportunities more accessible by organising it, systematizing it and having it available when and where people need it.
It also includes assisting people to reflect on their aspirations, interests, competencies, personal attributes, qualification and abilities to match these with available training and employment opportunities. Career guidance plays a key role in helping labour market work and education systems meet their goals.
Technical education is the training of technically oriented personnel who are to be the initiators, facilitators and implementers of technological development of a nation Uwaifo, Vocational education, on the other hand is the training or retraining designed to prepare individuals to enter into a paid employment in any recognized occupation Daso, It includes guidance and counseling in relation to training and giving other instruction directly associated to an occupation Osuala, The mission of technical and vocational education is to promote the production of skilled, technical and professional manpower to revitalize and sustain the national economy and reduce unemployment and poverty.
According to Oni , technical and vocational education gives individuals the skills to learn and become productive citizens and for advancement in the workplace.
Despite the contributions of technical education to national development, it still has a low public status Moja, This mentality has, in most part, contributed to the neglect of technical education institutions and reason why the youth shy away from technical and vocational studies.
As a result, most of the secondary school graduates and some of those who managed to pass through the university lack the skills and knowledge to compete effectively in the rather tight labour market and thus loiter around in the cities from dawn to dusk looking for jobs that are not available Dike, The youth are struggling with the challenging of acquiring employability skills because the society is focused mostly on formal university education.
Every facet of the economy has been affected by the scarcity of skilled technicians. In this era of global unemployment situation, vocational and technical education has been an integral part of national development strategies in many societies because of the impact on human resource development, productivity and economic growth.
Research Methodology In carrying out this study, the descriptive survey approach was used, where questionnaires are used to determine the opinion of the respondents on the issue under investigation. A Simple Random Sampling SRS was employed in the selection of the sample for the study to sample the Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers giving the total of one hundred and thirty six personnel.
The analysis of data for the research questions and hypothesis were accomplished using the mean and analysis of variance ANOVA. The mean was used to determine the degree of acceptance or rejection in research questions, while analysis of variance ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses of two groups of respondents. A F-ratio of 3. Therefore, any item with analysis of variance ANOVA calculated value less than the critical was regarded as not significant. While any item with calculated value equal or greater than the critical was regarded as significant.
Hypothesis I HO1: There is no statistical significance difference between the mean responses of Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers on the causes of youth unemployment. The result of the test of significance difference in mean responses of respondents on the causes of youth unemployment is presented in Table 1 11 Table 1: One- way Analysis of Variance of the mean responses of the respondents on the causes of youth unemployment Sources of Df Sum of Mean f- cal f- Significance Decision variation Squares Sum of critical Squares Between 2 0.
Since the calculated f- ratio is below the f- critical of 3. Hypothesis II HO2: There is no statistical significance difference between the mean responses of Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers on the positive and negative effect of youth unemployment on individual and the society at large. The result of the test of significance difference in mean responses of respondents on the positive and negative effect of youth unemployment on individual and the society at large is presented in Table 2 12 Table 2: One- way Analysis of Variance of the mean responses of the respondents on the positive and negative effect of youth unemployment on individual and the society at large.
Hypothesis III HO3: There is no statistical significance difference between the mean responses of Automobile Technicians, Automobile Students and Automobile Lecturers on the means of alleviating the rate of unemployment among the youth.
The result of the test of significance difference in mean responses of respondents on the means of alleviating the rate of unemployment among the youth is presented in Table 3 Table 3: One- way Analysis of Variance of the mean responses of the respondents on the means of alleviating the rate of unemployment among the youth. Discussion of Findings In simple terms, employability is about being capable of getting and keeping fulfilling work.
In countries such as the UK, the mobile car body repair sectors has experienced high growth by way of mobile SMART Repair companies providing mobile car body repair services, such as Bumper Repairs, auto body repair, paintless dent repair and paintwork defect repairs to private and commercial consumers, typically within the industry framework of refinishing vehicle damage on a localised basis, where the area of damage being repaired is not in excess of an A4 sheet of paper. Auto body repair[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message Some repair shops offer both mechanical and bodywork repair. Automotive repair shops that specialize in bodywork repair are known as body shops.
They offer paintwork repairs to scratches, scuffs and dents, as well as repairs to the bodies of vehicles damaged by collisions. Many body shops now offer paintless dent repair. Auto glass repair[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Other repair shops offer auto glass repair.