Business analysis techniques pdf


    The book Business Analysis is an excellent ANALYSIS explores the entire range of approaches and techniques needed to conduct business analysis. Business Analysis Techniques: 72 Essential Tools for Success .. DOWNLOAD PDF .. The subject was 'Business Analysis Techniques', and, rather than just. International Institute of Business Analysis. Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge. Draft Material for Review and Feedback. Release Draft.

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    Business Analysis Techniques Pdf

    TECHNIQUES. 72 Essential Tools for Success. James Cadle, Debra Paul and Paul Turner. Business Analysis Technique:Layout 1 1/19/10 AM Page iii. This implies that more business analysis effort will be put at the beginning of the project .. BA may use the SWOT analysis technique in preparing the business case and the risk .. Scan the certified invoice copy into PDF file. Upload the PDF . Jun 30, The tool can be used with any Business Analysis process and there is templates and generating to a variety of formats including Docx, PDF and RTF. discussions and often acts as a precursor to more formal techniques.

    About this book Introduction This book frames business analysis in the context of digital technologies. It introduces modern business analysis techniques, including a selection of those in the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge BABOK by the International Institute of Business Analysis IIBA , and exemplifies them by means of digital technologies applied to solve problems or exploit new business opportunities. It also includes in-depth case studies in which business problems and opportunities, drawn from real-world scenarios, are mapped to digital solutions. The work is summarized in seven guiding principles that should be followed by every business analyst. This book is intended mainly for students in business informatics and related areas, and for professionals who want to acquire a solid background for their daily work. It is suitable both for courses and for self-study. Additional teaching materials such as lecture videos, slides, question bank, exams, and seminar materials are accessible on the companion web-page.

    So we wondered whether there might not be a niche for a book that surveyed the wide range of techniques that can be used in business analysis work and gave advice on where and how each might be employed.

    In many ways we believe that a business analyst BA is in a similar position to that of other skilled professionals. Take a surgeon, for example, who will have available a wide array of instruments during a procedure. Skilled surgeons i have all of the instruments at their disposal, ii know how to use each, and iii know which one to select at each point in the procedure.

    The business analyst, similarly, needs a full kit of tools and the skills and knowledge to be able to use each when and where it is needed. The book covers many techniques, but the limited space available did not permit the authors to go into a lot of detail. We have decided to adopt the process model presented in Chapter 4 of Business Analysis to provide a framework for this book, and we hope this will make it easier for readers to see how the two publications complement and support each other.

    We give an introduction to each stage and then divide each into logical sections. Description of the technique: This is a detailed, step-by-step description of the technique and the way it is used. Some techniques — that of workshops number 14 is a good example — have sub-techniques such as brainstorming, in the case of workshops within them, and these are also described. Using the technique: This part provides practical advice based on our experience, including discussions of the pros and cons of each technique, and where it does and does not work best.

    At the end of each stage we provide references and further reading. Here we list the books that we have found useful over the years in our practice of business analysis, and suggest where our readers might like to go for more information.

    Of course, no book of this type can ever hope to be completely comprehensive. This one includes descriptions of 72 separate techniques or, taking the variants and aliases into account, We are sure individual readers will be upset that some favourite technique of theirs has been omitted, but all we can say in our defence is that we have tried to be as inclusive as possible. If you do feel strongly that a particular technique should be included, let us know — there may be a later edition and it could be considered for inclusion there.

    Increasingly, BAs are engaged at an early point. They investigate ideas and problems, formulate options for a way forward and produce business cases setting out their conclusions and recommendations. The early engagement of BAs also places a critical responsibility upon them — the need to ensure that all business changes are in line with the mission, objectives and strategy of the organisation.

    This business context is the key foundation for understanding and evaluating all ideas, proposals, issues and problems put forward by managers. Quantitative investigation Techniques 16—19 In addition to qualitative information, it is also useful to get quantitative data to provide further insights into the business problems and issues.

    For example, how many invoices are produced per day? Per month? Per annum? Is there a peak at a particular time of the month? How much time is spent dealing with complaints, as opposed to taking new orders? What information is recorded on forms and reports at the moment, and who uses this? The qualitative techniques we present are: However, this is laborious and time consuming, and sometimes the real essence of a problem or issue can get lost in a great mass of text. As a supplement, or a substitute, for text we present here some more visual techniques: Occasionally the BA may interview more than one person, and sometimes, too, more than one BA may be involved in a discussion, but one-to-one is the more usual situation.

    A successful interview has three main stages, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Whom do I want to interview, and what do I want to ask them? Interviewees could be selected for a number of reasons, including these: You should: Summarise the main points of the discussion. Again, thank the interviewee for their time and their contribution to the analysis work.

    Returning now to the body of the interview, this is where the main part of the questioning takes place. There are various types of question that the BA may consider using, and each has its pros and cons. The main types are: On the other hand, sometimes questions can be too open, leaving the interviewee a bit confused about what is wanted.

    These are follow-ups to other questions, for example: In general, though, avoiding too many closed, limited-choice or leading questions is good, since these tend to close down the conversation, whereas open questions tend to keep it going.

    While all this questioning is going on, the BA should be making notes of the conversation and should pause as necessary to facilitate this. The reasons for this include: Interviewees usually have much more subject-matter knowledge than do BAs. This can make the latter seem inexperienced, and lead them to ask apparently silly or obvious questions. Often the interviewees are busy, and resent giving up their time in this way.

    They then populate these with details as the interview proceeds. Description of the technique A workshop is essentially a gathering of a group of stakeholders in a project for the purpose of: The basic process for staging a workshop is shown in Figure 2. The elements to think about at the planning stage are: The key question to ask is: Whatever the objectives are, they should be clearly stated on the agenda, which should be sent to the participants in enough time for them to prepare properly for the meeting.

    Clarity about the objectives should make it clear who the attendees should be. If the purpose of the workshop is to discover things, then priority must be given to people who have detailed knowledge on which to draw.

    If the workshop is expected to make decisions, then authority as well as knowledge is required. Sometimes knowledge and authority are not both found in one person, so the list of invitees may have to be widened to include more people. This will enable the facilitator to think about what techniques to employ and how to manage the workshop. The facilitator needs to consider the objectives and the attendees, and decide which techniques may be most appropriate to use.

    Some of these are considered below. A suitable venue must be booked for the workshop. Focus on objectives: Keep on track: This is about making sure that the timetable is followed as far as possible.

    Ensure participation: In many ways this is the most important role of the facilitator — making sure that all of the people attending have a chance to participate. Keep a record: This is true of workshops too, and someone must be deputed to keep a record of proceedings. Summarise key points: At various stages during the workshop, and particularly at the end, the facilitator should summarise where discussions have got to and highlight any actions agreed.

    Doing this occasionally during the workshop helps participants to understand where they have got to and what they need to think about next. Follow up There are two vital responsibilities following the workshop: Issue notes: Invite feedback: This enables facilitators to hone their skills for future events.

    The last point is an important one.

    Business Analysis Techniques 72 Essential Tools for Success Free PDF

    Someone needs to be responsible for making notes as the workshop progresses. For reasons we are about to explore, this should not, ideally, be the facilitator. The scribe therefore needs to be someone who has both an understanding of the topic under discussion and the close attention and note-taking skills required to keep an accurate record of proceedings.

    He or she must possess some necessary characteristics including: It is a matter of some dispute whether the facilitator needs to have an in-depth knowledge of the subject of the workshop. What is not in dispute, though, is that the facilitator is there to help the participants to reach a conclusion — but not any particular conclusion.

    We have more to say about the BA as facilitator later in this section. Assuming that the climate is propitious, however, the following may be tried: Personal introductions: This is the most commonly used ice breaker, and simply involves asking all of the participants to introduce themselves and tell the rest of the group something about them.

    As a variation, participants can be asked to interview their immediate neighbours and then introduce them to the rest of the group. This gets some conversation going. Each person writes down four things about himself or herself, one of which is not true. Participants then read these out, and the rest of the group tries to identify those that are untrue. The group is divided into teams which have to assume that they have been marooned on a desert island.

    This one is good because it does get some discussion going, which is, after all, the object of the workshop.

    Bodyguards and assassins: The exercise can cause great hilarity and encourage a warmer and more dynamic atmosphere. This is the technique that everyone remembers when thinking about workshops. It involves simply announcing a topic or posing a question, and inviting participants to shout out ideas. Brainstorming works well when participants are comfortable with one other and not afraid of being criticised, but these ideal conditions do not always exist in a workshop.

    In these situations, something like a Post-it exercise see below can be more productive. It is vital, by the way, that all ideas are written down, partly so that they are not forgotten, but also so that those who suggested them do not feel slighted or excluded.

    Round robin: Here the facilitator goes round the table from person to person and invites each to make a suggestion. Again, Post-Its may be a better bet. Post-it exercise: The idea here is that each participant is given a block of adhesive notes and is asked to write a suggestion on each one.

    The advantage of this over brainstorming is that each participant has time to think, and they do not have to expose their ideas immediately to public scrutiny. An advantage of this approach over brainstorming is that it produces some quantitative, as well as qualitative, data; in other words, if several people write notes on the same topic, we get a sense that this topic is quite important.

    Also, the process is not slowed down by the need for the scribe or facilitator to write things down. Columns and clusters: Once the columns or clusters have been created, they can be reordered until the participants think they have them organised in a sensible manner. Talking wall: This is like the Post-it approach indeed, the little notes may be used with it , but it starts with several sheets of brown paper stuck to a wall.

    The facilitator asks the participants to write their ideas or stick their notes directly on to them. This one focuses on an organisation, or a group of people, or perhaps another nation, and asks: Assumption reversal: Finally the participants could be asked to reverse their normal assumptions about a problem. The possibilities include: This is what seems to happen most frequently, and it has the advantage that all the participants can see immediately what is being recorded.

    Its success does rather depend on the scribe, or the facilitator, having reasonable handwriting, and it can slow proceedings down, particularly where the facilitator is also the one doing the writing.

    Post-it notes: Context and use case diagrams: These are very good for establishing the scope of a proposed IT system, and are covered in detail later in the book Techniques 22 and Rich pictures: The idea of these is that they help participants to break away from the limitations of text.

    There is a description of rich pictures later in this chapter Technique They are described in detail later in this chapter Technique Using workshops Workshops have come to be the dominant technique for requirements elicitation and decision-making in projects, where once interviews seemed to reign supreme.

    Business Analysis Techniques: 72 Essential Tools for Success

    It should also be pointed out, though, that they are not always successful or universally accepted, and many people regard them as being just like any other meeting, and thus generally a waste of their time. Workshops, like any other technique, have their drawbacks, and some of the issues with them are examined next. Right and wrong participants: The success of a workshop is very dependent on having the right people present. If detailed information is required, then people who do the job, and can thus provide this, are needed; if decisions are needed, the workshop must include people who can make them.

    The facilitator can help here at the beginning by getting everyone to accept their equality within the workshop, and later by managing the workshop so that the most senior people do not unduly dominate proceedings. Probably participants: Overambitious agenda: Winston Churchill is reported to have said: If, at the scheduled end point, agreement is very close, then an extension may be acceptable provided it is negotiated and agreed with the participants.

    The venue: On site is obviously cheaper and perhaps easier, though meeting rooms seem to be in short supply in many organisations. Choice of techniques: One thing that is a good idea in any case is to use a variety of techniques, so that participants do not get bored with yet another Post-it exercise or brainstorm.

    Facilitating a workshop is a nontrivial undertaking. The business analyst as facilitator: BAs often end up facilitating workshops because they have convened them and have mastered the issues involved, but this is not necessarily a good idea. The facilitator may also have to act in the workshop to control participants, and this can make subsequent working relationships tricky. If at all possible, then, it is better to have an independent facilitator.

    If the budget will not run to hiring someone from outside, then maybe a BA from another project might be willing to act as facilitator; the favour can be returned at a later date. Losing control: It is down to the facilitator to ensure that this does not happen, and that the workshop results in satisfactory conclusions for the participants.

    Description of the technique Observation consists of BAs going and looking at work — business processes for example — for themselves. There are some very good reasons for it, including these: Business users often have trouble describing clearly or concisely what they actually do on a day-to-day basis, and it can be much more productive for the BA to watch what goes on rather then trying to elicit such information through interviews or workshops.

    Watching people do their work can lead BAs to notice things that the business users may not have mentioned before, and they can follow this up by asking why these things are done and what value they add to the business processes.

    The fact that people do not necessarily do in practice what they have told the BA they do — or what, perhaps, the laid-down procedures say they should do — must also be faced. In either case, these departures from the established procedures are unlikely to come to light unless the BA has a look to see what is happening in practice as well as in theory.

    The simplest form of observation consists of BAs just sitting with a user, or a group of users, and noting down what goes on and anything unusual that strikes them. Of course, common courtesy — not to mention maintaining good relations with the workers and perhaps with their union — dictates that this be agreed in advance with the people concerned and their managers.

    As a more planned alternative to such an approach, we might employ structured observation, sometimes referred to as STROBE. This form of observation obviously depends on some preliminary investigations, probably via interviews or workshops, to identify what activities to look for.

    Shadowing can take two forms. In one, the BA follows workers around and notes everything they do, thus obtaining a good overview of the pattern of work. Protocol analysis consists of workers performing their duties while providing the BA with a commentary on what they are doing.

    An anthropologist undertaking such a study is trying to discover things about the way the society works, what its norms are, where the power is in the group, what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, and so on.

    For example, a few days immersed in a high-energy sales team may reveal the hopelessness of trying to introduce procedures for capturing customer information through the use of detailed forms or input screens. However, there are several very practical issues to be borne in mind when planning the use of observation and, later, understanding and interpreting the results. Although the Heisenberg principle is real enough, however, it is also true that people soon get used to being observed, and either tire of trying to fool the observer deliberately or just revert to normal patterns of working.

    If this preparation is done properly, it should help to overcome a lot of the problems described so far. And how does an observer interpret the sight of people just sitting and apparently doing nothing at all?

    The only solution to this is, of course, to ask what is going on or — as with protocol analysis — to ask the person to provide a running commentary; but sometimes people feel awkward or embarrassed about doing this.

    The BA therefore needs to be aware of this possibility, and be alert to something occurring that is relevant to the study even if it is not on the list.

    For example, there may be some cyclical peak or trough of work, and if the period of study happens to coincide with this, the results will not give a representative picture of work more generally.

    To avoid this, the BA needs to conduct some preliminary discussions with the workers and their managers and to select a study period that is reasonably typical. If an atypical period cannot be avoided — perhaps due to project time pressures — then other records may have to be consulted so that an adjustment can be made to the results. It will have been apparent when reading the description above of ethnographic studies that this is likely to be a time-consuming exercise.

    Unfortunately such time is not often available in the hard-pressed world of work. It has to be acknowledged, too, that observation does not, of itself, yield reliable quantitative data; at best, it produces a view of the situation as seen by a — hopefully — impartial observer. It may have to cater for lots of interruptions, for example.

    Description of the technique Questionnaires are among the range of techniques that a BA can use to elicit requirements or gather other information, or to validate with a wider group of people the information already gained from smaller groups by using, for example, interviews or workshops Techniques 13 and Similarly a BA may want to see whether the views of a few interviewees are shared more widely.

    Heading section This section seeks to do three things: It should explain to the recipients what the questionnaire is about, and its importance. It should give some incentive for people to complete and return the questionnaire. This could take the form of a lessening of their workload, the removal of some tedium from their tasks, or something else that the workers may appreciate.

    Finally it should be clearly spelled out how and to whom the questionnaire should be returned. If the questionnaire is on paper, an addressed and, if relevant, stamped envelope should be included for the purpose. Are there divergences between the ideas of senior managers and front-line workers? Data section This is the part of the document where the actual questions are asked.

    Three types of question might be posed it is worth comparing this list with the broader set given in the earlier discussion on interviewing — see Technique Limited choice: Where closed and limited-choice questions are used, respondents should also be provided with the chance to make comments that explain their choices.

    Using questionnaires One real problem with questionnaires is the low response rate typically experienced. Another issue to consider with poor response rates is how to interpret the results that are obtained.

    Is it safe, for example, to assume that the people who responded are typical of the larger population? Probably not; it is just as likely that those who returned their questionnaires had a particular axe to grind.

    To increase the likelihood that people do respond to questionnaires, respondents are sometimes guaranteed anonymity. The phrasing of each question should also receive careful consideration, and it is a good idea to test questions out on a small sample of respondents before using the questionnaire more widely.

    Some poorly phrased questions may, in fact, be impossible to answer sensibly, and this can antagonise respondents — and cause them not to complete the questionnaire. Even if most of a questionnaire contains closed or limited-choice questions, respondents should be given some open questions, or at least be allowed some comments, so that they can qualify their responses; otherwise, they may feel that their views are being inaccurately represented, which, again, can worsen the response rate.

    However, online surveys must be carefully designed for ease of use and navigation. The best principles of good web design should be followed in the creation of online surveys.

    Description of the technique Sampling is one of the techniques that can be used to obtain quantitative data during a business analysis assignment — particularly data about how people spend their time. This is valuable because it enables the BA to understand where the real problems and issue lie, and it also provides input to the business case for change.

    One of the problems with the information gleaned from interviews and workshops Techniques 13 and 14 is that it is, to some extent, subjective — it represents the views and opinions of individuals.

    Observation will help to put these views into perspective, but there is nothing like measurement to get to the real heart of a problem. We may also employ special-purpose records to get quantitative data, but, as we show in the description of Technique 18, they do rather depend on the memory and the goodwill of the people completing them; the memory in that they need to remember to complete them, and the goodwill in that they have to complete them accurately.

    Before embarking on a sampling exercise the BA needs to prepare the ground.

    To do this: Talk to the managers of the department or area concerned, and also the people working there, to explain the purpose of the exercise. Where the workforce is unionised, the agreement of the trade union representatives will also be needed. Find out what activities are likely to be seen during the sampling period, and check whether the period is a reasonably typical one not hitting an atypical year-end period, for instance.

    Decide the sampling interval. To get a reasonable picture of the work, something like once every 15 minutes is usually good enough. Based on this information a sheet like that in Figure 2. This is to avoid the possible problem where the intervals coincide with some regular process and thus give a skewed result.

    We can see in our example that the averages settle down quite well after three days, so that probably gives us a reasonable picture of the pattern of work.

    We can combine sampling data with information gleaned from other sources to measure transaction times. For example, during the three-day exercise shown in Figure 2.

    Business Analysis - Third edition

    Two issues that do worry people with sampling are that being watched in this way can be unnerving for the workers, and that the workers may behave atypically particularly by working faster or slower than usual precisely because they are being measured. Description of the technique Often in business analysis work it is useful to gather quantitative as well as qualitative data.

    For example, if we are examining the work of a complaints-handling section, it would be useful to know how many complaints are made, what they are about, how long it takes to respond to them, and so forth. One method of getting such data is to conduct an activity-sampling exercise Technique However, activity sampling is time-consuming for the analyst and can be unnerving to the people being studied.

    The use of special-purpose records, whereby business users keep a tally of what they have been doing, is an alternative way of collecting such information. Let us continue to use a complaints-handling section as our example. We could devise a special-purpose record for it, which in its simplest form might look like that shown in Figure 2.

    In Figure 2. To identify these we would previously have conducted an interview with the section manager, or perhaps held a workshop with some members of the section. A more elaborate timesheet is shown in Figure 2. Using special-purpose records The most obvious downside of special-purpose records is that they may not be completed accurately.

    One reason for this is that people forget to do it until the end of the day — probably because they are very busy doing their actual work — and then just make something up to keep the pesky BA happy! Document analysis Description of the technique Document analysis is the systematic examination of data sources, usually forms, but also screen layouts and reports if there is an existing system, to analyse the data requirements of a proposed computerised information system.

    The starting point for document analysis is to discover worthwhile data sources to examine. In the early days of IT, such sources would always be physical things, usually forms, ledgers and so forth. Today, where one is more likely to be moving from an existing IT system to a newer one, the range of sources can also include screens and reports from the current system.

    The information shown on each document is examined systematically and recorded on a form like that shown in Figure 2. We also record how it is currently prepared — in this case by hand. The remaining information to be recorded includes: Filing sequence: Training record sheet Project file reference: Doc 10 Stationery ref: Form TR01 Size: A4 landscape Filing sequence: Alphabetical by surname Storage medium: HR clerk or HR manager When created: When employee joins Retention period: HR Department Volumes per: Month Minimum: Review training Review training Appraisal To check Frequency of use: As required As required Annually As required Data item: Value range: Sources of data: Name Alphanumeric Record of training courses attended by employees Number of parts: Not applicablevolume fairly static Not used Storage medium: Here we show who records the information initially and who maintains it.

    Again this gives us information about who will need to have access rights once the system is computerised. When created: This helps to identify the business event that causes the information to be recorded initially.

    Now we begin to understand how long information will need to be held and to be available in our computerised system. Storage location: Here we can record the number of new documents per month, per year or whatever, and what the overall growth in numbers is.

    This, clearly, is of some importance in working out how much space must be reserved in the system for the data. Apart from the people who record the information initially, we are also interested in who needs to access it and for what reason. Data item information: This is extremely useful in modelling the data for the proposed system for details of which, see Techniques 63 and 64, entity relationship modelling and class modelling , and, again, in sizing the proposed system.

    Using document analysis Some commonsense has to be used in the selection of data sources to be documented in this way. We do not necessarily need to examine every form, screen or report currently used. Some BAs may feel that such detailed work on data is not really part of their job, leaving this to the systems analysts or even the developers. Rich pictures Description of the technique Rich pictures were popularised in the soft systems methodology, put forward by Professor Peter Checkland and his associates in the s Checkland The idea is to capture in pictorial form the essential elements of a business issue or problem, to facilitate a more holistic understanding and analysis of it.

    There are no rules as to what may or could be captured in a rich picture, nor about what symbols should be used, so it is a very free-format technique indeed. Typically, though, the sorts of things we want to represent in a rich picture include: For example, is it true that the factory does a worse job than do outside suppliers, or does this just represent the prejudices of the salespeople?

    Some people love the freedom of expression they permit, and relish the way they avoid the tedium of long textual descriptions of problems and issues. It is also true that not everyone is equally gifted with drawing skills.

    Drawing is essential to the use of rich pictures, but if one cannot, for example, draw people as in Figure 2. An element of this may be related to organisational culture, too: We are not so sure, however, that rich pictures necessarily provide a particularly good method of communication back to the business stakeholders, since what is clear to the author of a rich picture may be very obscure to someone else viewing it.

    Again, this might depend on the culture of the organisation being studied. We would urge BAs at least to give rich pictures a try, to see if they will work for them, in their environment. This example uses only words, but mind maps can be even more powerful if images are used as well or instead. When using it to support interviewing, the BA can create the outline mind map — the trunk and main branches only — from the agenda and then populate the rest of the diagram with information supplied by the interviewee.

    Because only a few words need to be written down, this can simplify note taking and allow for greater eye contact with the subject. When it is used during a workshop, the facilitator can create the mind map as participants suggest ideas.

    Not everyone gets on with mind maps. Certainly they provide focus, clarity and brevity where more conventional notes, though containing the information, sometimes obscure key issues with irrelevant detail. Our advice would be to try the technique — and maybe persist with it for a while if it is not instantly accessible. It just shows the existence of a relationship between the system and the actor.

    Using context diagrams Context diagrams can be developed by BAs based on the research they have done through interviews, workshops and so forth. Having drawn a diagram a BA then needs to review it with the various actors to check that it does represent their understanding of how they will use the proposed system.

    However, context diagrams are also a powerful tool for use during a workshop with the various stakeholders Technique Alternatively participants can be invited to come up and add actors themselves. If time permits, the group can then go on to explore the types of function within the system with which each actor will interact — and thus begin to develop a more detailed use case diagram Technique Buzan, T. BBC Active, London. Checkland, P. Wiley, Chichester. DeMarco, T.

    Rumsey, D. Wiley, Hoboken. TSO, London. Wood, M. A Non-mathematical Approach. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. Yourdon, E. Skidmore, S. Townsend, J. Management Pocketbooks, London.

    Yeates, D. FT Prentice Hall, Harlow. Stakeholders can support or resist change, they can clarify or confuse requirements, and they have knowledge that the analyst needs to acquire. Once an investigation of the business situation has been carried out the BA needs to take time to think through the issues that have been raised.

    At this point thinking through the information gained and the perspectives of those providing that information can be invaluable in uncovering inconsistencies, hidden agendas and personal priorities.

    Failing to think about these points, or delaying this thinking until a problem arises, can derail or undermine later work. This is done in order to identify the stakeholders within these groups who may have working links or interests with the area under investigation. There are three techniques that are used to identify the stakeholders for a particular business analysis assignment: Many initiatives have been derailed when an alternative point of view has emerged, sometimes at a late stage.

    It is important to carry out this analysis, since this will provide a means of deciding the stakeholder management strategies to be adopted. There are four major techniques that are used to analyse stakeholders: Analysing stakeholders is the key to working well with them. This is essential if business analysis work is to be successful in delivering business improvements. Early analysis of stakeholders can prevent the occurrence of many problems, in particular: Stakeholder management Techniques 30—32 Stakeholder management provides the basis for ongoing work with the stakeholders during a project.

    It involves identifying and implementing management strategies that enable analysts to deal with a range of stakeholders. These management strategies are based upon the categorisation that has been carried out during stakeholder analysis. They have to be supplemented by additional techniques that help during the stakeholder management process. Three techniques that help with managing stakeholders are covered in this section: Stakeholder nomination Description of the technique It is relatively easy to identify an initial set of stakeholders, and this is done mainly through stakeholder nomination.

    Using stakeholder nomination This approach usually works in a hierarchical fashion: Sometimes the sponsor or managers will identify people who are sympathetic to their views and ideas, resulting in a limited analysis with the risk that important details are omitted.

    Description of the technique There are many reasons for initiating a business analysis project. These include a change in business strategy, a request from a senior manager, changes to a related business area, and legal or regulatory changes. One may even follow on from a feasibility study. Some BR projects require the use of several techniques, while others require just one. It appears that the problem complexity is correlated with the number of techniques required or used. However, this research is a good starting point for expanding the sample to allow more generalizable results.

    Future research may investigate the deeper connections between reengineering and analysis techniques and the risks of using various techniques to diagnose problems in multiple dimensions. An investigation of fit between problems and techniques could be explored.

    Practical implications — The author have a better idea which techniques are used more, which are more versatile, and which are difficult to use and why. Practitioners and academicians have a better understanding of the fit between technique and problem and how best to align them.