How to master ccnp route pdf full

 
    Contents
  1. How to Master CCNP Switch
  2. Ccnp Books
  3. Calaméo - How to master CCNP Route
  4. CCNP ROUTE

Title: How to master CCNP Route, Author: gaby ferrari, Length: 77 pages, Published: My goal is to have full connectivity and here are the configurations: . master the CCNP exam. Enjoy reading my book and good luck getting your CCNP certification! BGP routers with a partial or full internet routing table. also love routing & switching because it‟s one of those fields in IT that doesn‟t change much some of . The Cisco Catalyst is a layer 3 switch that is suitable for CCNP SWITCH. I don‟t . Click on the link below to get the full version.

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How To Master Ccnp Route Pdf Full

Download the Book:How To Master Ccnp Route PDF For Free, Preface: How to master CCNP ROUTE shows you, step-by-step, everything you need to know to. CCNP Routing and Switching SWITCH Official Cert Guide CCNP: Complete Study Guide heipretotarli.cf How to Master CCNP SWITCH Rene Molenaar How to Master CCNP SWITCH. Your investment of the CCNP ROUTE Complete Guide 1st Edition RT2 which has the higher Router ID would become the Master and.

Summary This book seems to follow suit with the goal of that site, to understand the what and why behind the configuration commands needed to make networks work. The primary purpose of the book is to help in passing the CCNP Route exam , which is pretty clear from the title. These topics have introduction chapters that bring you back up to speed with a CCNA refresh, then concurrent chapters that go into further CCNP level detail. Conclusion I downloadd this book after have visited gns3vault. I am always looking for reference materials that bring a new and different view on old topics that get stale during my studies. One small complaint is the topology diagrams use hostnames such as John, Jack, and KingKong instead of R1, R2, and R3 which is my personal preference and to me creates a better flow when troubleshooting. But I have seen this in many great texts before, and it does not really take away from the quality of the information presented. Rating Scale based on Administrative Distance Connected interface.

What else do we find here? Your first neighbor will have a value of 0, the second neighbor a value of 1 and so on. Once this timer expires we will drop the neighbor adjacency. The default holddown timer is 15 seconds. Ideally you want this number to be 0 otherwise it might be an indication of congestion on the network.

It will go into active mode and send query packets to ALL its neighbors asking them if they know how to reach this network. By setting the reply status flag it will do this. More on this later! In this case there is only one way to get to the destination. The second value is the advertised distance. Does this make sense to you? Understanding the EIGRP topology table is very important for troubleshooting or when we start playing with load balancing.

What do we find here? In the examples above you could see that the feasible and advertise distance values are a bit higher which makes them annoying to work with. If you look at it you can see that it incorporates bandwidth, load, delay and reliability and you can see K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 values. These K values are only numbers to scale numbers in the metric calculation.

Only K1 and K3 are enabled by default. The example above only shows part of the output.

You can see the bandwidth is Kbit which is a Mbit interface. Cisco IOS will have default delay values for the different types of interface. A FastEthernet interface has a default delay of usec.

If you are having issues this value will decrease. This means that only bandwidth and delay are used in the formula.

How to Master CCNP Switch

Why not? Because loading and reliability are dynamic values and they can change over time. We want routing protocols to be nice and quiet and only base their routing decisions on static values like bandwidth and delay. As you can see there is an upper path with some T1 interfaces and a 64kbps link. The path below has two kbps links. A T1 interface has a bandwidth of 1. Does this make your head spin?

The important lesson I wanted to show you here is that EIGRP uses the slowest bandwidth in the path and the sum of delays. No need to do any manual calculations on the exam!

Feel like playing with the metrics and some load balancing? Note the EIGRP will summarize to the classful network by default. So what happens with router Hearts? It thinks it can reach the Obviously this is going to cause problems. Spade config router eigrp 1 Spade config-router no auto-summary Clubs config router eigrp 1 Clubs config-router no auto-summary Type in the no auto-summary command to make sure EIGRP behaves classless and sends the subnet mask along. In the picture below we have router Jack and John, router Jack has the following networks configured: You need to specify the AS number and the subnet mask to send along the network.

We reduced its routing table from 4 entries to just 1 entry. Look at router Jack above and check out the last entry. Our Null0 interface is like a black hole sucking up packets never to return again…ouch! Let me show you another example. If you look at the example above I made a change. I created the summary This is a C- example! You have to remove the old one yourself. So what happens when we send a ping towards an IP address within the John ping Jack config access-list permit ip any Debug ip packet is VERY useful but you need to use an access-list otherwise you drown in information.

What if there was a 3rd router in our topology and router Jack has a default route pointing to this router? We will end up forwarding packets for Internet Jack John Route Advertisement: Router John has another interface connected to the Internet.

Router John has a default Route to the Internet. Since we want Internet access on router Jack as well we configure a default route on router Jack towards router John. Router John has the Router John sends an IP packet to X network in its routing table but does have a default route. Router Jack will forward the IP packet to router John. Uh-oh…we have a routing loop! Thanks to our Null0 interface this is not going to happen, watch this: John ping Our entry with Packets will be forwarded to Null0 and are gone!

No more routing loops… Creating summaries has one more advantage besides reducing the size of routing tables. You will also have less routing updates on your network.

The whole network is updating itself because just a single interface went down. Summaries can help us here. Summary: All the routers on the right side have Did you enjoy this?

Ccnp Books

We only use them within our autonomous system but they are not scalable to use for something as large as the Internet. There is only one routing protocol we currently use on the Internet which is BGP. Our ISP is making sure we have Internet access. This scenario is excellent when you only have clients that need Internet access.

We could use port forwarding and forward the correct ports to these servers so we still only need a single IP address. Another option would be to get more public IP addresses from our ISP and use these to configure the different servers. We could add another router at the customer side and connect it to the ISP. You can use the primary link for all traffic and have another link as the backup. This will make sure that your IGP sends all traffic to the primary link. Once the link fails your IGP will make sure all traffic is sent down the backup link.

Let me ask you something to think about…can we do any load balancing across those two links? Your IGP will send all traffic down the primary link and nothing down the backup link unless there is a failure. What about our Customer network? We still have those 2 servers that need to be reachable from the Internet. An AS is a collection of networks under a single administrative domain. The Internet is nothing more but a bunch of autonomous systems that are connected to each other. For routing between the different autonomous systems we use an EGP external gateway protocol.

How do we get an autonomous system number? Autonomous system numbers are bit which means we have AS 1 up to Since January we can also use bit numbers for autonomous systems. External BGP is to exchange routing information between the different autonomous systems.

We can reach the internet through both ISPs. The customer router will advertise its We have connectivity because of the default routes but this can lead to sub-optimal routing.

Calaméo - How to master CCNP Route

If we only have the default routes then we will send all traffic to one of the ISPs. Our customer network only received a default route from both ISPs and we have chosen to use the default route of ISP1 to send all our outgoing traffic to. This means that whenever we send traffic meant for This partial update might include all the IP address space that the ISPs have assigned to their customers.

Just like in real life…the more you know the better off you are. In the world of routing having more routing information means you can make better routing decisions. This of course requires more memory and CPU power to maintain! On the internet there are a number of looking glass servers. These are routers that have public view access and you can use them to look at the Internet routing table.

You can telnet to these devices and use show ip route and show ip bgp to check the BGP or routing table. All our IGPS have in common that they want to find the fastest path to the destination. BGP is also called a policybased routing protocol. Influencing traffic with BGP is very easy to do. Look at the image above. We have 4 autonomous systems and we are running BGP to exchange routing information.

In AS 1 we have network This is one of the looking glass servers. By using the show ip bgp command I can look at the BGP table and we see this router knows about network 1. The next-hop IP address is At the end of the line you see path with the numbers These are the autonomous systems we have to get through in order to get to this network.

In the picture above I have 9 autonomous systems and in AS 9 we have network If we look at AS 1 then we have a lot of different paths we can take to reach network Does this mean the network administrator at AS 1 can choose the path we are going to use? AS 1 will only learn about the best path from AS 2 and AS3 unless their best path fails…only then you will learn about the second best path. So far so good? The next part of this chapter will be fun.

Just two routers and two autonomous systems. Each router has a network on a loopback interface which we are going to advertise in BGP.

Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router neighbor This is how we configure external BGP. You also see how many prefixes you received from each neighbor. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router network 1. If you want to advertise something with BGP you need to make sure you type the exact subnet mask for the network you want to advertise. If I would type network 1. You can see that router Emma has learned about network 2.

It also shows the path information. You can see that network 2. Emma show ip route bgp 2. In the example I just showed you router Emma and Marie used the IP addresses on their directly connected interface to establish the external BGP neighbor adjacency. Jack config router eigrp 1 Jack config-router no auto-summary Jack config-router network 1.

In this case that means that 1. Network 1. Does it matter? Yes and no. It will work but also means that every interface that falls within the 1. Network If you are working on a lab and are lazy like me you can also type in network 0. Neighbor This behavior is normal because the network command does two things: Use the passive interface command.

John config router eigrp 1 John config-router passive-interface loopback 0 This will advertise the 2. You can also configure passiveinterface default and only activate the interfaces you want to run EIGRP on. John is also receiving an update packet from router Jack and afterwards sending its own update packet.

If you want to see the whole process we can combine some debugging. Jack clear ip eigrp neighbors. Gateway Distance Last Update Show ip protocols is a very useful and powerful command in your CCNP arsenal.

It will show you for which networks you are routing, passive interfaces and the administrative distance. See the external administrative distance of ? As you can see we have one neighbor What else do we find here? Here you will find the order when the neighbor adjacency was established.

Your first neighbor will have a value of 0, the second neighbor a value of 1 and so on. Once this timer expires we will drop the neighbor adjacency. The default holddown timer is 15 seconds. The number of milliseconds it takes to send an EIGRP packet to your neighbor and receive an acknowledgment packet back. The amount of time in milliseconds that EIGRP will wait before retransmitting a packet from the retransmission queue to this neighbor.

Ideally you want this number to be 0 otherwise it might be an indication of congestion on the network.

CCNP ROUTE

This will show you the sequence number of the last update,query or reply packet that you received from your EIGRP neighbor. Let me break it down for you in chunks:. Passive is good…we like routing information to be passive which means that we have learned information about a network and there are no changes in the topology table. It will go into active mode and send query packets to ALL its neighbors asking them if they know how to reach this network.

EIGRP will track all the query packets it has sent to neighbors since you need a reply in return. By setting the reply status flag it will do this. This is a bad one…it means that EIGRP has not received a reply to a query packet from one of the neighbors within the allowed time about 3 minutes. More on this later! The best path to get to a certain network is called the successor.

In this case there is only one way to get to the destination. The first value is the feasible distance. The second value is the advertised distance. Does this make sense to you? Understanding the EIGRP topology table is very important for troubleshooting or when we start playing with load balancing.

What do we find here? Do you recognize these values?

In the examples above you could see that the feasible and advertise distance values are a bit higher which makes them annoying to work with. If you look at it you can see that it incorporates bandwidth, load, delay and reliability and you can see K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5 values. These K values are only numbers to scale numbers in the metric calculation.

We can see what K values are enabled or disabled by default: Only K1 and K3 are enabled by default. The example above only shows part of the output. You can see the bandwidth is Kbit which is a Mbit interface. Cisco IOS will have default delay values for the different types of interface. A FastEthernet interface has a default delay of usec. If you are having issues this value will decrease.

This means that only bandwidth and delay are used in the formula. Why not? Because loading and reliability are dynamic values and they can change over time. We want routing protocols to be nice and quiet and only base their routing decisions on static values like bandwidth and delay. So the formula looks like: As you can see there is an upper path with some T1 interfaces and a 64kbps link. The path below has two kbps links. A T1 interface has a bandwidth of 1.

The lowest bandwidth in the upper path is our 64kbps link so the EIGRP bandwidth calculation will look like this: Maybe you are wondering what the formula looks like if you would enable loading K2 and reliability K4 as well, well here it is: Does this make your head spin? The important lesson I wanted to show you here is that EIGRP uses the slowest bandwidth in the path and the sum of delays. No need to do any manual calculations on the exam!

Feel like playing with the metrics and some load balancing? Try the following labs: EIGRP has two ways of summarizing networks: Note the EIGRP will summarize to the classful network by default. So what happens with router Hearts? It thinks it can reach the Obviously this is going to cause problems.

Spade config router eigrp 1 Spade config-router no auto-summary Clubs config router eigrp 1 Clubs config-router no auto-summary Type in the no auto-summary command to make sure EIGRP behaves classless and sends the subnet mask along.

In the picture below we have router Jack and John, router Jack has the following networks configured: Jack John Networks: John show ip route Codes: You need to specify the AS number and the subnet mask to send along the network.

We reduced its routing table from 4 entries to just 1 entry. Look at router Jack above and check out the last entry.

Our Null0 interface is like a black hole sucking up packets never to return again…ouch! Let me show you another example. If you look at the example above I made a change. I created the summary This is a C- example! You have to remove the old one yourself. So what happens when we send a ping towards an IP address within the John ping Jack config access-list permit ip any Debug ip packet is VERY useful but you need to use an access-list otherwise you drown in information.

What if there was a 3rd router in our topology and router Jack has a default route pointing to this router? We will end up forwarding packets for Internet Jack John Route Advertisement: Router John has another interface connected to the Internet.

Router John has a default Route to the Internet. Since we want Internet access on router Jack as well we configure a default route on router Jack towards router John. Router John has the Router John sends an IP packet to X network in its routing table but does have a default route.

Router Jack will forward the IP packet to router John. Uh-oh…we have a routing loop! Thanks to our Null0 interface this is not going to happen, watch this: Our entry with Packets will be forwarded to Null0 and are gone! No more routing loops… Creating summaries has one more advantage besides reducing the size of routing tables. You will also have less routing updates on your network.

The whole network is updating itself because just a single interface went down. Summaries can help us here. All the routers on the right side have Did you enjoy this? We only use them within our autonomous system but they are not scalable to use for something as large as the Internet.

There is only one routing protocol we currently use on the Internet which is BGP. Our ISP is making sure we have Internet access. This scenario is excellent when you only have clients that need Internet access. Customer ISP Internet. We could use port forwarding and forward the correct ports to these servers so we still only need a single IP address.

Another option would be to get more public IP addresses from our ISP and use these to configure the different servers. We could add another router at the customer side and connect it to the ISP.

You can use the primary link for all traffic and have another link as the backup. This will make sure that your IGP sends all traffic to the primary link. Once the link fails your IGP will make sure all traffic is sent down the backup link. Let me ask you something to think about…can we do any load balancing across those two links? Your IGP will send all traffic down the primary link and nothing down the backup link unless there is a failure.

What about our Customer network? We still have those 2 servers that need to be reachable from the Internet. An AS is a collection of networks under a single administrative domain.

The Internet is nothing more but a bunch of autonomous systems that are connected to each other. For routing between the different autonomous systems we use an EGP external gateway protocol. How do we get an autonomous system number?

Autonomous system numbers are bit which means we have AS 1 up to Since January we can also use bit numbers for autonomous systems. External BGP is to exchange routing information between the different autonomous systems. We can reach the internet through both ISPs. There are a number of options: The customer router will advertise its We have connectivity because of the default routes but this can lead to sub-optimal routing.

If we only have the default routes then we will send all traffic to one of the ISPs. Our customer network only received a default route from both ISPs and we have chosen to use the default route of ISP1 to send all our outgoing traffic to.

This means that whenever we send traffic meant for This partial update might include all the IP address space that the ISPs have assigned to their customers. Just like in real life…the more you know the better off you are. In the world of routing having more routing information means you can make better routing decisions. In case you are wondering how large a full Internet routing table would be…you can find it online: This of course requires more memory and CPU power to maintain!

On the internet there are a number of looking glass servers. These are routers that have public view access and you can use them to look at the Internet routing table. If you want to see what it looks like check out: You can telnet to these devices and use show ip route and show ip bgp to check the BGP or routing table.

All our IGPS have in common that they want to find the fastest path to the destination. BGP is also called a policybased routing protocol. Influencing traffic with BGP is very easy to do. Look at the image above. We have 4 autonomous systems and we are running BGP to exchange routing information.

In AS 1 we have network This is one of the looking glass servers. By using the show ip bgp command I can look at the BGP table and we see this router knows about network 1. The next-hop IP address is At the end of the line you see path with the numbers These are the autonomous systems we have to get through in order to get to this network.

In the picture above I have 9 autonomous systems and in AS 9 we have network If we look at AS 1 then we have a lot of different paths we can take to reach network Does this mean the network administrator at AS 1 can choose the path we are going to use?

Not really because of the following reasons: AS 1 will only learn about the best path from AS 2 and AS3 unless their best path fails…only then you will learn about the second best path. So far so good? The next part of this chapter will be fun. Just two routers and two autonomous systems. Each router has a network on a loopback interface which we are going to advertise in BGP. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router neighbor This is how we configure external BGP.

You also see how many prefixes you received from each neighbor. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router network 1. If you want to advertise something with BGP you need to make sure you type the exact subnet mask for the network you want to advertise. If I would type network 1. You can see that router Emma has learned about network 2. It also shows the path information. You can see that network 2. Emma show ip route bgp 2.

In the example I just showed you router Emma and Marie used the IP addresses on their directly connected interface to establish the external BGP neighbor adjacency. Emma config ip route 2. Emma config router bgp 1 Emma config-router neighbor 2. We also have to use the update-source command to tell BGP to source its updates from the loopback0 interface.

When we source our updates from the loopback interfaces we will exceed a TTL of 1, this is something you have to change: I have set the TTL at 2 hops. Emma show ip bgp summary BGP router identifier 1. Look at the topology above. Our goal is to make sure AS 1 can reach network 3. AS 3 has been configured to advertise network 3.

Router John is running BGP and now has network 3. Our next step is to make sure router Jim will advertise network 3. If you want to advertise something with BGP it has to be in your routing table and we have two options to do this: How about a full Internet routing table?

Internal BGP to the rescue! Router Jim can learn about network 3. Are we done now? Not quite yet…. Router Jim receives this packet, looks at its routing table and sees it has to forward it towards router John. Router Jack or James receives this IP packet and looks at its routing table to find the destination 3. Uh-oh…router Jack nor router James has no idea where to find network 3.

The packet will be dropped and an ICMP unreachable will be sent. How do we solve this problem? Configure internal BGP on all routers within the autonomous system.